Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is also known as ALL or acute lymphocytic leukemia. It is a type of cancer affecting the blood. Although the precise cause of this disorder is not fully understood, exposure to radiation and certain chemicals are considered risk factors for this condition. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia may cause various symptoms like anemia (low blood counts), bleeding, infection or fever. A physician will typically diagnose this condition with a physical exam and blood tests, although certain imaging studies such as an x-ray or CT scan might be necessary. Treatment for cancers of the blood, including childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is rapidly progressing with advances in medical research. Currently, treatment methods may include chemotherapy, stem cell transplant and radiation therapy.