Childhood acute myeloid leukemia is the second most common form of leukemia, after acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is also called acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or acute myelogenous leukemia. It is a type of cancer affecting the blood. Although the precise cause of this disorder is not fully understood, exposure to radiation and certain chemicals are considered risk factors for this condition. Childhood acute myeloid leukemia may cause various symptoms such as fatigue, excessive bleeding, bruises and fever. A physician will typically diagnose this condition with a physical exam and blood tests, although certain imaging studies such as an x-ray or CT scan might also be necessary. Treatment for cancers of the blood, including childhood acute myeloid leukemia, is progressing with advances in medical research. Currently, treatment for childhood acute myeloid leukemia often involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplant.