Alzheimer's Disease

Common Name(s)

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive condition of the brain that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common form of dementia, a term that refers to any condition that worsens mental functioning over time. Alzheimer's disease is most common in individuals 65 years and older, but cases of early onset have been documented in individuals in their 40s and 50s.

Alzheimer's is caused by two abnormal protein structures ("plaques" which are protein deposits and "tangles" which are twisted protein fibers) found in the brain tissue along with the loss of connection between neurons (nerve cells in the brains). These abnormalities cause the brain cells to lose normal function. It is uncertain what causes these abnormalities to develop but several genes have been identified as risk factors. Environmental factors and behaviors such as alcoholism have been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well.

The first sign of Alzheimer's is an inability to remember newly learned information. As the condition progresses over time, the individual may experience worsening memory loss, changes in mood or behavior and eventually severe confusion (in terms of time, events, or places), disorientation, and unnecessary suspicions about family or others. The individual may progress to the point that he or she cannot take care of him or herself, eat or swallow, speak, or walk. A diagnosis for Alzheimer’s is not definitive but is based upon a combination of looking at someone's family history, a physical exam, and other tests. Plaques and tangles are not seen on MRI or other brain scans. Genetic testing may also be helpful in some familial cases.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's, but drug treatments are available to slow the progression, manage the symptoms, and improve quality of life. If you or someone you know is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, contact your doctor to discuss the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Alzheimer's Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alzheimer's Association

The mission of the Alzheimer's Association is to eliminate Alzheimer's disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

Last Updated: 7 Jul 2015

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Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center

The Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center was established by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to provide information to health professionals, patients and their families and the public about Alzheimer's disease and other memory disorders.

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2014

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Alzheimer's Foundation of America

To provide optimal care and services to individuals confronting dementia, and to their caregivers and families--through member organizations dedicated to improving quality of life.

Last Updated: 9 Apr 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Alzheimer's Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alzheimer's Association

The mission of the Alzheimer's Association is to eliminate Alzheimer's disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

http://www.alz.org

Last Updated: 7 Jul 2015

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Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center

The Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center was established by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to provide information to health professionals, patients and their families and the public about Alzheimer's disease and other memory disorders.

http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2014

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Alzheimer's Foundation of America

To provide optimal care and services to individuals confronting dementia, and to their caregivers and families--through member organizations dedicated to improving quality of life.

http://www.alzfdn.org

Last Updated: 9 Apr 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Alzheimer's Association Helpline

The Alzheimer's Association 24/7 Helpline provides reliable information and support to all those who need assistance. Call us toll-free anytime day or night at 800.272.3900. Our 24/7 Helpline serves people with memory loss, caregivers, health care professionals and the public.

Updated 15 Oct 2012

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Alzheimer's Disease" returned 7024 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Design of optimal nonlinear network controllers for Alzheimer's disease.
 

Author(s): Lazaro M Sanchez-Rodriguez, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Erica A Baines, Sabela C Mallo, Mehdy Dousty, Roberto C Sotero,

Journal:

 

Brain stimulation can modulate the activity of neural circuits impaired by Alzheimer's disease (AD), having promising clinical benefit. However, all individuals with the same condition currently receive identical brain stimulation, with limited theoretical basis for this generic approach. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Memory deficiency, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and amyloid-β plaques in APP+PS1 double transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
 

Author(s): Diana Klakotskaia, Cansu Agca, Rachel A Richardson, Edward G Stopa, Todd R Schachtman, Yuksel Agca

Journal:

 

Transgenic rat models of Alzheimer's disease were used to examine differences in memory and brain histology. Double transgenic female rats (APP+PS1) over-expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) and single transgenic rats (APP21) over-expressing human ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Peripheral Retinal Imaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study.
 

Author(s): Lajos Csincsik, Thomas J MacGillivray, Erin Flynn, Enrico Pellegrini, Giorgos Papanastasiou, Neda Barzegar-Befroei, Adrienne Csutak, Alan C Bird, Craig W Ritchie, Tunde Peto, Imre Lengyel

Journal: Ophthalmic Res.. 2018 ;59(4):182-192.

 

To examine whether ultra-widefield (UWF) retinal imaging can identify biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its progression.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Alzheimer's Disease" returned 1901 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

I-ioflupane SPET and I-MIBG in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian disorders and in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's and Lewy's bodies dementias.
 

Author(s): Susanna Nuvoli, Barbara Palumbo, Simona Malaspina, Giuseppe Madeddu, Angela Spanu

Journal: Hell J Nucl Med. ;21(1):60-68.

 

Nuclear medicine procedures are widely used as "in vivo" biomarkers in a large number of brain diseases, especially in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and of parkinsonian disorders (pD). Furthermore, nuclear medicine is used in the differential diagnosis of dementias especially ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The role of astrocytes in amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease.
 

Author(s): Georgia R Frost, Yue-Ming Li

Journal: Open Biol. 2017 Dec;7(12):.

 

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by the presence of extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and gliosis, activated glial cells, in the brain. It is thought that Aβ plaques trigger NFT formation, neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Alzheimer's Disease: Past, Present, and Future.
 

Author(s): Mark W Bondi, Emily C Edmonds, David P Salmon

Journal: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2017 Oct;23(9-10):818-831.

 

Although dementia has been described in ancient texts over many centuries (e.g., "Be kind to your father, even if his mind fail him." - Old Testament: Sirach 3:12), our knowledge of its underlying causes is little more than a century old. Alzheimer published his now famous case study ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Memantine Treatment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Alzheimer Disease

 

Last Updated: 25 May 2017

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Last Updated: 17 Feb 2018

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