Human blood group systems is a way of charecterizing and dividing up types of red blood cells based on markers on the surface of the cells. Types of markers in the Scianna (Sc) blood group system are Sc1, Sc2, Sc3, Radin (Sc4), and Star (Sc5).
Having the Sc blood group system is a result of having a change in the EMRAP gene, which causes the unique blood cell markers. Genes are made up of DNA passed from parent to child that code for proteins responsible for normal bodily and cellular functions.
The Scianna blood group has also been referred to as the “Radin” blood group. The Scianna blood group is not a disease, just a set of unique blood markers caused by changes/variants in the gene. However, having different blood markers may lead to problems. If a mother and fetus (developing child in womb) have different markers on their red blood cells, there is a chance that hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) may develop. HDFN occurs when the red blood cells of the mother and fetus have different markers thus activating the mother’s immune system which attacks the fetus and breaks down its red blood cells. Upon birth of the fetus, symptom can range from anemia, heart failure, or even death.
Blood group can be determined through specific blood tests, and fetal blood group/blood group-determining genetic mutations can be identified through the mother’s blood. HDFN may be prevented by injecting the mother with blood treatments to prevent her immune system from recognizing the difference in blood markers. If you or a family member is of the Scianna blood group, speak with your doctor to learn more information.
Description Last Updated: Aug 24, 2018