Exophthalmos

Common Name(s)

Exophthalmos

Exophthalmos is a condition in which the eye or eyes extend or bulge out of the eye socket, often giving the affected individual a startled appearance. Exophthalmos affects women more often than men, and is most common in individuals of European descent who are between the age of 40 and 70 years old. Exophthalmos may be caused by infection, inflammation, injury, tumors, vascular disorders, and other genetic disorders. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by elevated levels of thyroid hormone in the blood and is one of the most common causes of exophthalmos.

Symptoms seen in the eyes of individuals affected by exophthalmos include irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, and increased sensitivity to light. Diagnosis is made with tests to measure the movement of the eyes, the size and structure of the eye socket, and thyroid hormone levels in Grave’s disease. If untreated, complications of exophthalmos include corneal damage, permanent protrusion of the eyes, and severe irritation of the eyes. In severe cases, blindness may result from damage to the optic nerve.

Treatment for exophthalmos depends on the cause of the condition. Medications may be used to correct thyroid hormone levels in exophthalmos caused by Graves’ disease. Corticosteroids or radiation therapy may be used to reduce swelling and inflammation of the eye. Severe cases of exophthalmos may require surgery. If you or your child has been diagnosed with exophthalmos, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Exophthalmos" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Exophthalmos" returned 123 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Utility of rituximab treatment for exophthalmos, myxedema, and osteoarthropathy syndrome resistant to corticosteroids due to Graves' disease: a case report.
 

Author(s): Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Ruben Casados-V, Pedro Paúl-Gaytán, Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta

Journal:

 

Exophthalmos, myxedema, and osteoarthropathy syndrome is a very rare condition that is associated with Graves' disease. The presence of dermopathy and the involvement of joint/bone tissues indicate that it seems to be related with the severity of the autoimmune process. Owing to its ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Extensive ARMC5 genetic variance in primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia that started with exophthalmos: a case report.
 

Author(s): Ping Jin, Muhammad Usman Janjua, Qin Zhang, Chang-Sheng Dong, Youbo Yang, Zhao-Hui Mo

Journal:

 

Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome characterized by the presence of bilateral secretory adrenal nodules. Recent studies have shown that primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is caused by combined germline and somatic ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Exophthalmos in a young woman with no graves' disease - a case report of IgG4-related orbitopathy.
 

Author(s): Annamaria Erdei, Zita Steiber, Csaba Molnar, Ervin Berenyi, Endre V Nagy

Journal:

 

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-rd) is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and tissue fibrosis. Orbital manifestations of IgG4-rd may include unilateral or bilateral proptosis, cicatricial extraocular muscle myopathy, orbital inflammation and pain which may mimic ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Exophthalmos" returned 5 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with pulsatile exophthalmos: case report and literature review.
 

Author(s): Atsushi Saito, Hiroyuki Kon, Shinya Haryu, Masaki Mino, Tatsuya Sasaki, Michiharu Nishijima

Journal: Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo). 2014 ;54(7):563-6.

 

A 20-year-old woman suffered gradual progression of right pulsatile exophthalmos and slight headache. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated outward and downward displacement of the right globe and an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa associated with thinned and anterior ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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[How to investigate a patient with exophthalmos?].
 

Author(s): V Brun, F Lafitte, M Hamedani, F Héran, P Koskas, O Bergès, J Chiras, J D Piekarski

Journal: J Neuroradiol. 2002 Sep;29(3):161-72.

 

Exophthalmos is the main symptom revealing orbital masses. This sign needs to be imaged mainly by MRI and/or CT. As Graves disease is the main etiology of exophthalmos, CT scan should be performed as the initial imaging modality. Indications for US and Doppler are mostly limited to ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Polyarteritis nodosa (PN) complicated with unilateral exophthalmos.
 

Author(s): R Koike, M Yamada, T Matsunaga, S Yoshida, H Tsukagoshi

Journal: Intern. Med.. 1993 Mar;32(3):232-6.

 

A 58-year-old woman suddenly developed right exophthalmos. A CT scan of her orbit revealed an increase in volume and density of extraocular muscles and intraorbital soft tissues that resembled exophthalmos in Graves' disease. The exophthalmos gradually improved without treatment. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Last Updated: 26 Aug 2018

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Efficacy and Safety of Cholestyramine and Prednisolone as Adjunctive Therapy in Treatment of Overt Hyperthyroidism
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hyperthyroidism; Graves Disease

 

Last Updated: 1 Oct 2017

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Total Thyroidectomy Versus Thionamides in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Graves' Ophthalmopathy
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Graves Disease; Graves Ophthalmopathy; Graves' Ophthalmopathy Worsened

 

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2017

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