is a disorder in which there is excess calcium deposited in the kidneys. It is relatively common in premature infants. Individuals may be asymptomatic or have symptoms related to the condition causing nephrocalcinosis. If kidney stones are present, an individual may have blood in the urine; fever and chills; nausea and vomiting; or severe pain in the belly area, sides of the back (flank), groin, or testicles. Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with chronic kidney failure. It may be caused by use of certain medications or supplements; infection; or any condition that leads to high levels of calcium in the blood or urine including hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, Alport syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and a variety of other conditions. Some of the underlying disorders that can cause nephrocalcinosis are genetic, with the inheritance pattern depending on the specific disorder. The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent more calcium from being deposited in the kidneys. Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), supported by ORDR-NCATS and NHGRI.