Urea cycle disorders

Common Name(s)

Urea cycle disorders

A urea cycle disorder is a genetic disorder that results in a deficiency of one of the six enzymes in the urea cycle. These enzymes are responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. The urea cycle involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, is changed to a compound called urea and removed from the blood. Normally, the urea is removed from the body through the urine. In urea cycle disorders, nitrogen builds up in the blood in the form of ammonia, a highly toxic substance, resulting in hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia). Ammonia then reaches the brain through the blood, where it can cause irreversible brain damage, coma and/or death. The onset and severity of urea cycle disorders is highly variable. The severity correlates with the amount of urea cycle enzyme function.
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Urea cycle disorders" for support, advocacy or research.

Intermountain PKU and Allied Disorders Association

The mission of the Intermountain PKU and Allied Disorders Association is to provide education and resources to individuals and families, to encourage research, and to increase public awareness of these conditions.

Last Updated: 29 May 2015

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National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

The National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation is the only organization solely dedicated to saving the lives of children and adults with urea cycle disorders and leads the search for a cure. Internationally recognized, NUCDF serves as a lifeline to families and medical professionals around the world seeking life saving information. NUCDF is the driving force stimulating and supporting research for new treatments, improved outcomes, and a Cure. NUCDF efforts include educating UCD patients, families and medical professionals on diagnosis, treatment and management, and providing guidance, resources, information and support to all those affected by urea cycle disorders. The UCD International Patient Registry (www.ucdregistry.org), empowers UCD patients and caregivers to self-report their own unique experiences with UCD and compare them to others with UCD. Participants in the UCD Registry can help improve the understanding of UCDs, improve care, and accelerate research.

Last Updated: 11 Jun 2015

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Urea cycle disorders" for support, advocacy or research.

Intermountain PKU and Allied Disorders Association

The mission of the Intermountain PKU and Allied Disorders Association is to provide education and resources to individuals and families, to encourage research, and to increase public awareness of these conditions.

http://www.go-ipad.org

Last Updated: 29 May 2015

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National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

The National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation is the only organization solely dedicated to saving the lives of children and adults with urea cycle disorders and leads the search for a cure. Internationally recognized, NUCDF serves as a lifeline to families and medical professionals around the world seeking life saving information. NUCDF is the driving force stimulating and supporting research for new treatments, improved outcomes, and a Cure. NUCDF efforts include educating UCD patients, families and medical professionals on diagnosis, treatment and management, and providing guidance, resources, information and support to all those affected by urea cycle disorders. The UCD International Patient Registry (www.ucdregistry.org), empowers UCD patients and caregivers to self-report their own unique experiences with UCD and compare them to others with UCD. Participants in the UCD Registry can help improve the understanding of UCDs, improve care, and accelerate research.

http://www.nucdf.org

Last Updated: 11 Jun 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Urea cycle disorders" returned 37 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Metabolically based liver damage pathophysiology in patients with urea cycle disorders - A new hypothesis.
 

Author(s): Ivan Ivanovski, Miloš Ješić, Ana Ivanovski, Livia Garavelli, Petar Ivanovski

Journal: World J. Gastroenterol.. 2017 Nov;23(44):7930-7938.

 

The underlying pathophysiology of liver dysfunction in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) is still largely elusive. There is some evidence that the accumulation of urea cycle (UC) intermediates are toxic for hepatocyte mitochondria. It is possible that liver injury is directly caused by ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Safety and efficacy of glycerol phenylbutyrate for management of urea cycle disorders in patients aged 2months to 2years.
 

Author(s): Susan A Berry, Nicola Longo, George A Diaz, Shawn E McCandless, Wendy E Smith, Cary O Harding, Roberto Zori, Can Ficicioglu, Uta Lichter-Konecki, Beth Robinson, Jerry Vockley

Journal: Mol. Genet. Metab.. 2017 11;122(3):46-53.

 

Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) is approved in the US for the management of patients 2months of age and older with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) that cannot be managed with protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. Limited data exist on the use of nitrogen conjugation ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Polish Experience with Liver Transplantation and Post-Transplant Outcomes in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders.
 

Author(s): Edyta Szymańska, Piotr Kaliciński, Joanna Pawłowska, Sylwia Szymańska, Maciej Pronicki, Marek Stefanowicz, Joanna Teisseyre, Dorota Broniszczak, Dariusz Rokicki

Journal:

 

BACKGROUND Liver transplantation (LT) is recommended for various metabolic diseases, including urea cycle disorders (UCDs). The aim of this study was to determine indications and outcomes of LT for UCDs in the tertiary reference Children's Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. MATERIAL AND ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Urea cycle disorders" returned 10 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

An update on the use of benzoate, phenylacetate and phenylbutyrate ammonia scavengers for interrogating and modifying liver nitrogen metabolism and its implications in urea cycle disorders and liver disease.
 

Author(s): Javier De Las Heras, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar, Teresa C Delgado

Journal: Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2017 Apr;13(4):439-448.

 

Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Urea cycle disorders: a case report of a successful treatment with liver transplant and a literature review.
 

Author(s): Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Maria Cristina Morelli, Sara Savini, Anna Chiara Dall'Aglio, Arianna Lanzi, Matteo Cescon, Giorgio Ercolani, Alessandro Cucchetti, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Giuseppe Francesco Stefanini

Journal: World J. Gastroenterol.. 2015 Apr;21(13):4063-8.

 

The urea cycle is the final pathway for nitrogen metabolism. Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) include a variety of genetic defects, which lead to inefficient urea synthesis. Elevated blood ammonium level is usually dominant in the clinical pattern and the primary manifestations affect ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.
 

Author(s): Mark L Batshaw, Mendel Tuchman, Marshall Summar, Jennifer Seminara,

Journal: Mol. Genet. Metab.. ;113(1-2):127-30.

 

The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Outcomes in Urea Cycle Disorders
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Urea Cycle Disorders

 

Last Updated: 31 Oct 2017

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Last Updated: 27 Sep 2018

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Observational Study That Will Collect Information on Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Urea Cycle Disorder

 

Last Updated: 5 Jan 2018

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